In the definition of photosynthesis, we learn that it is a process done by plants as well as other organisms to transform energy from light to chemical. The light energy itself, is captured by green plants then used as energy to convert carbon dioxide, minerals and water into organic compounds and oxygen.
The process of photosynthesis is very important to maintain all life of the earth. If the process is ceased then organic matter and food will also decreased. In long term, it will make most organisms disappear from the earth. It will also make the atmosphere becomes toxic since it does not have enough oxygen.
Definition of Photosynthesis
It is important for us to understand photosynthesis so we can understand the importance and other elements behind it. Today, we still take the energy that is produced by photosynthesis process from millions of years back in the form of fossil fuels.
Those fossils fuels in the form of gas, oil and coal is the power used by our current industry. Furthermore, those fuels also used in the making of plastics as well as other products synthetically made by humans.
Reaction of Photosynthesis
Taking the chemical terms, definition of photosynthesis is described as oxidation reduction that is energized by light. In photosynthesis reaction done by plants, the energy that come from light is then use to convert oxidation of H2O to produce O2, H+ ions, and electrons.
The electrons that are removed from hydrogens ions then transferred to the CO2 which then reduced into organic compound. Other part of the hydrogen ions and electrons then used to reduce the sulfate and nitrate into amino acids.
In green plant cells, the carbohydrate in the form of sugar sucrose and starch are produced from this photosynthesis. The carbohydrates that are formed during the photosynthesis process by the plants are represented using CH2O formula. The Overall process can be indicate using this equation:
CO2+2H2O –light→ (CH2O)+O²+H2O
The equation itself is summarized since photosynthesis involved a lot of reactions using organic catalyst in the form of enzymes.
Direct products of photosynthesis that is most important in a lot of green plants are carbohydrates. The carbohydrate is created in its simple glucose form. The definition of photosynthesis that describe this process can be define with this equation:
6CO2+12H2O –light→ (C6H12O6)+6O²+6H2O
Plants produced various little glucose in the form of free glucose units. Then those free units will be linked to create sucrose by joining them with another sugar or fructose. Other units are linked together to create starch.
Besides carbohydrates another product create by photosynthesis are proteins, amino acids, pigments, lipids and various other organic components in green plant tissues that are synthesized in the process.
The minerals taken by the plants are used to supply various elements to create the other compounds. Those minerals are sulfur, phosphorus and nitrogen. The chemical bonds from the compounds are broken to create new bonds. These new bonds are the one that creates various photosynthesis products such as organic compounds and oxygen.
Influence Factors of Photosynthesis Rate
The photosynthesis rate will determine the production of oxygens by unit mass of plants. There are various environmental factors that affecting the rates. Furthermore, the condition of the plants is also another factor to consider.
1. Temperature and light
Through definition of photosynthesis we learned that light is an important element used in the process. There are various stages in the process which can by studied by observing the process under different temperatures and light saturation. Through the observation we also learn that different temperature and light produce different photosynthesis rate.
2. Carbon dioxide
Organic compounds in photosynthesis are using carbon dioxide as the source of carbon. Thus, when the concentration of the carbon dioxide is increased, it also somewhat increased the reaction rates.
The availability of the water in land can limit the growth of the plants as well as photosynthesis process. It is also required in the photosynthetic reaction which then also affect the rates.
Some minerals are needed for the plant to grow healthy and also used in the process of photosynthesis. They are very important component in the synthesis process of various compound created as photosynthesis product. That is why, they are required to maximized the photosynthesis rates.
5. Internal factor
The species of the plants affect how it can adapt to the environments. In normal condition, the mechanism inside the cells of the plants can adjust the activities of the organic catalysts needed in the photosynthesis process. The adjustments are the one maintains the balanced of the photosynthesis process. That way, the plants can control the photosynthesis rates according to their needs.
As you can see there are various factors that can influence the photosynthesis rates. You need to learn about the definition of photosynthesis to be able to go in more dept about all of those factors.